A poem of sorts: Actualities Things are not quite as they appear. Yet appearances arise from actualities, are manifestations of actualities. Imagination can leap beyond experience, to its hidden causes. Objective knowledge is possible. Certain knowledge is not possible. Complete knowledge is not possible. Good enough!

It is a mistake to think that you understand anything completely. Something is always missing. I’m not the first to point this out. In 1233, Zen master Eihei Dōgen (source) wrote: For example, when you sail out in a boat to the midst of an ocean where no land is in sight, and view the four […]

This site is written by me, John R. Josephson, as a way to work out some basic issues in epistemology (the philosophy of knowledge), and to develop material for a book to be entitled Knowledge Without Certainty. I hope for help from critical readers in the form of comments and discussion. Accordingly, I strongly invite constructive comments and […]